Index of Species Information
AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Walsh, Roberta A. 1993. Grindelia squarrosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/grisqu/all.html . ABBREVIATION : GRISQU SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : GRSQ COMMON NAMES : curlycup gumweed tarweed resinweed curly-top gumweed sticky-heads gumweed TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of curlycup gumweed is Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal [10,14]. It is in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Recognized varieties are: Grindelia squarrosa var. squarrosa [1,10,12] Grindelia squarrosa var. nuda (Wood) Gray [1,10,14] Grindelia squarrosa var. quasiperennis Lunnell [10,14] Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata (Rydb) Steyerm. [10,12] LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY
DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Curlycup gumweed is native to much of the area from Manitoba south to Texas and east to Idaho and Arizona. It is naturalized in eastern North America and the Pacific Coast states [16,17]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES29 Sagebrush FRES30 Desert shrub FRES31 Shinnery FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES36 Mountain grasslands FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES39 Prairie FRES40 Desert grasslands STATES : AZ CA CO CT ID IL IN IA KS ME MA MI MN MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY ND OH OK OR PA RI SD TX UT WA WI WY AB BC MB ON PQ SK BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K011 Western ponderosa forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K016 Eastern ponderosa forest K017 Black Hills pine forest K018 Pine - Douglas-fir forest K022 Great Basin pine forest K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K037 Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub K038 Great Basin sagebrush K039 Blackbrush K040 Saltbush - greasewood K041 Creosotebush K046 Desert: vegetation largely lacking K047 Fescue - oatgrass K050 Fescue - wheatgrass K051 Wheatgrass - bluegrass K055 Sagebrush steppe K056 Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe K057 Galleta - three-awn shrubsteppe K063 Foothills prairie K064 Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass K065 Grama - buffalograss K066 Wheatgrass - needlegrass K067 Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass K068 Wheatgrass - grama - buffalograss K069 Bluestem - grama prairie K070 Sandsage - bluestem prairie K071 Shinnery K074 Bluestem prairie K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie K081 Oak savanna K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100 K098 Northern floodplain forest SAF COVER TYPES : 42 Bur oak 62 Silver maple - American elm 67 Shin (Mohrs) oak 210 Interior Douglas-fir 218 Lodgepole pine 220 Rocky Mountain juniper 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock 237 Interior ponderosa pine 239 Pinyon - juniper SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Associates of curlycup gumweed in sagebrush-grassland vegetation in southeastern Montana include big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), plains prickly pear (Opuntia polyacantha), western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides), and blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) . Associates of curlycup gumweed on shortgrass rangeland in fair condition in eastern Colorado include blue grama, buffalo grass, rush skeletonplant (Lygodesmia juncea), wavyleaf thistle (Cirsium undulatum), pricklepoppy (Argemone intermedia), and crazyweeds (Oxytropis spp.) . Associates of curlycup gumweed in tallgrass and mixed-grass prairie in southwestern Oklahoma include big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) . Associates of curlycup gumweed on land adjacent to creek bottoms in central Montana include wheatgrasses (Agropyron and Pascopyrum spp.), foxtail barley (Critesion jubatum), brome (Bromus spp.), desert saltgrass (Distichlis stricta), big sagebrush, silver sagebrush (Artemisia cana), greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus), and rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) .
IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Curlycup gumweed was eaten by sage grouse chicks aged 5 to 8 weeks in central Montana. It was used by 28 percent of chicks and made up 3 percent by volume of crop contents. At ages 9 to 12 weeks it was used by 39 percent of chicks and made up 4 percent of crop contents. It was not used by chicks younger than 5 weeks old . PALATABILITY : Curlycup gumweed is unpalatable to cattle, sheep, and horses [8,19], though sheep will occasionally crop flower heads in the absence of other forage . Tannins, volatile oils, resins, bitter alkaloids, and glucosides give curlycup gumweed an unpleasant taste . NUTRITIONAL VALUE : The energy value and protein value of curlycup gumweed for livestock is poor. Its food value for several species of wildlife in some western states is : MT ND UT Elk ---- ---- poor Mule deer ---- ---- poor Pronghorn ---- ---- poor Upland game birds good good fair Waterfowl ---- ---- poor Small nongame birds fair good fair Small mammals ---- ---- fair COVER VALUE : The cover value of curlycup gumweed for several species of wildlife in some western states is : MT ND UT Elk ---- ---- poor Mule deer poor fair poor White-tailed deer ---- fair ---- Pronghorn good fair poor Upland game birds fair fair fair Waterfowl ---- fair poor Small nongame birds fair fair fair Small mammals ---- poor fair VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Curlycup gumweed occurred in only trace amounts on unreclaimed and reclaimed bentonite mine spoils in southeastern Montana. It occurred in greater abundance on adjacent grasslands . Curlycup gumweed was used in a roadside reseeding project in southern Wisconsin. It showed a high ability to survive and grow under adverse conditions. Seedlings transplanted easily to the field and grew rapidly. Results for both direct seeding and seedling transplant were excellent . OTHER USES AND VALUES : Native Americans used curlycup gumweed extracts to treat asthma, bronchitis, colic, and skin rash . The Pawnees boiled the flower heads and leaves, and used the decoction for bathing saddle sores and other skin irritations . Today, medicinal uses include treatment of bronchial spasm, whooping cough, asthma, and rashes caused by poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) . Curlycup gumweed extract is valuable as a stimulant, sedative, astringent, purgative, emetic, diuretic, antiseptic, and disinfectant . Curlycup gumweed is used as an ornamental. It produces flowers over a long period, even when the soil is poor and dry . OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Curlycup gumweed increases with grazing  and has a negative economic impact on rangelands . It forms dense, brushlike cover in rangelands where there is much broken sod . In the Central Great Plains, it is not usually found on ranges of excellent or good condition, but is found on ranges in fair condition . Curlycup gumweed stems, leaves, and flowers produce a sticky exudate. The coats of livestock can become gummed with it . Curlycup gumweed is drought resistant due to deep roots and resinous secretions . Curlycup gumweed is a facultative selenium absorber .
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Curlycup gumweed is a warm-season  perennial or biennial native forb . It grows 0.33 to 3.3 feet (0.1-1 m), with one to several branched stems [14,12]. Flower heads are several to numerous. The floral disk is 0.6 to 2.75 inches (1.5-7 cm) wide. The fruit is an achene . Curlycup gumweed is taprooted, and develops a short, vertical rhizome. The root system extends 6.5 feet (2 m) into the soil , with extensive shallow root development .
|Creative Commons photo, copyright 2010 Barry Breckling.|
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Curlycup gumweed may sprout from its short, vertical rhizome after fire. However, no information was available concerning its sprouting performance. Curlycup gumweed seeds probably establishes on burned sites by wind-dispersed seed. FIRE REGIMES : Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes". POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Rhizomatous herb, rhizome in soil Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - off-site seed
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Curlycup gumweed is probably top-killed by fire. PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Curlycup gumweed colonizes disturbed areas, and establishes or increases after fire. Curlycup gumweed was a trace species with 0.1 percent cover before a natural range fire occurred in a cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum)-sand dropseed (Sporobolus cryptandrus)-red threeawn (Aristida longiseta) community during the summer of 1956. It was not present the first growing season following the fire, in 1957. At the end of the next growing season, its cover was 1.2 percent. During the next 2 years it was present only in trace amounts . Curlycup gumweed populations increased following a 1983 or 1984 wildfire of unknown intensity and season in a 9,600 square foot (800 sq m) area in central Utah . DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : The Research Project Summary Vegetation response to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests of western Montana provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species including curlycup gumweed. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY
REFERENCES : 1. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p.  2. Bentley, H. L. 1898. A report upon the grasses and forage plants of central Texas. Bull. 10. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Agrostology. 38 p.  3. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.  4. Callow, J. Michael; Kantrud, Harold A.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1992. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 24(2): 57-64.  5. Christensen, Earl M. 1964. Changes in composition of a Bromus tectorum-Sporobolus cryptandrus-Aristida longiseta community following fire. Utah Academy Proceedings. 41(I): 53-57.  6. Clements, Frederic E. 1936. Nature and structure of the climax. Journal of Ecology. 24: 252-284.  7. Coupland, Robert T. 1958. The effects of fluctuations in weather upon the grasslands of the Great Plains. Botanical Review. 24(5): 273-317.  8. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p.  9. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p.  10. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]. Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press. 1632 p. (Dudley, Theodore R., gen. ed.; Biosystematics, Floristic & Phylogeny Series; vol. 2).  11. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p.  12. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p.  13. Goetz, Harold. 1963. Growth and development of native range plants in the mixed grass prairie of western North Dakota. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 141 p. Thesis.  14. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  15. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p.  16. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p.  17. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p.  18. Joyce, JoAnne; Morgan, John P. 1989. Manitoba's tall-grass prairie conservation project. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 71-74.  19. Kaul, Robert P.; Keeler, Kathleen H. 1980. Effects of grazing and juniper-canopy closure on the prairie flora in Nebraska high-plains canyons. In: Kucera, Clair L., ed. Proceedings, 7th North American prairie conference; 1980 August 4-6; Springfield, MO. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri: 95-105.  20. Klipple, G. E.; Costello, David F. 1960. Vegetation and cattle responses to different intensities of grazing on short-grass ranges on the Central Great Plains. Technical Bulletin No. 1216. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 82 p.  21. McArthur, E. Durant; Blauer, A. Clyde; Stevens, Richard. 1990. Forage kochia competition with cheatgrass in central Utah. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Romney, Evan M.; Smith, Stanley D.; Tueller, Paul T., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on cheatgrass invasion, shrub die-off, and other aspects of shrub biology and management; 1989 April 5-7; Las Vegas, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-276. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 56-65.  22. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. (Revised edition). Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p.  23. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p.  24. Nuzzo, Victoria. 1978. Propagation and planting of prairie forbs and grasses in southern Wisconsin. In: Glenn-Lewin, David C.; Landers, Roger Q., Jr., eds. Proceedings, 5th Midwest prairie conference; 1976 August 22-24; Ames, IA. Ames, IA: Iowa State University: 182-189.  25. Osborn, Ben; Allan, Philip F. 1949. Vegetation of an abandoned prairie-dog town in tall grass prairie. Ecology. 30: 322-332.  26. Peterson, J. G. 1970. The food habits and summer distribution of juvenile sage grouse in central Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management. 34(1): 147-155.  27. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p.  28. Redmann, R. E. 1972. Plant communities and soils of an eastern North Dakota prairie. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 99(2): 65-76.  29. Schripsema, Janet R. 1978. Ecological changes on pine-grassland burned in spring, late spring and winter. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota State University. 99 p. Thesis.  30. Sieg, Carolyn Hull; Uresk, Daniel W.; Hansen, Richard M. 1983. Plant-soil relationships on bentonite mine spoils and sagebrush- grassland in the northern High Plains. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 289-294.  31. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p.  32. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p.  33. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 1971. Common weeds of the United States. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 463 p.  34. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p.  35. Weaver, J. E. 1968. Prairie plants and their environment: A fifty-year study in the Midwest. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 276 p.  36. Whitson, Tom D., ed. 1987. Weeds and poisonous plants of Wyoming and Utah. Res. Rep. 116-USU. 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Bransford, W.D. and Dolphia
Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal
Asteraceae (Aster Family)
USDA Symbol: GRSQ
USDA Native Status: L48(N), CAN (N)
Stout erect stem bears several branches with yellow daisy-like flower heads.
This tough but short-lived perennial, a common invader of overgrazed rangeland in the West, has now spread to dry waste places in the East. Because of its bitter taste it is not eaten by cattle. Indians used its flowers and leaves for treating bronchitis and asthma and for healing sores. The powdered flower heads were once used in cigarettes to relieve asthma.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Jul , Aug , Sep
DistributionUSA:AR , AZ , CA , CO , CT , DE , IA , ID , IL , IN , KS , KY , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MO , MT , ND , NE , NH , NJ , NM , NV , NY , OH , OK , OR , PA , RI , SD , TN , TX , UT , VA , VT , WA , WI , WY
Canada:AB , BC , MB , NL , NT , QC , SK
Native Distribution:Native in western and southwestern North America, but spreading eastward to the Mid-Atlantic states and north to Ontario and Quebec.
Native Habitat: Prairies and waste places.
Growing ConditionsSoil Moisture: Dry
BenefitUse Medicinal: First Nations People used its flowers and leaves for treating bronchitis and asthma and for healing sores. The powdered flower heads were once used in cigarettes to relieve asthma. (Niering) Boiled flower heads used as wash for skin diseases, scabs and sores. Tea of plant given to kids for stomach. Tea used for kidney trouble, coughs, whooping cough, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia and colds. (Kindscher) Pounded sappy leaves used for poison ivy rash. Gun used asthma, bronchitis and whooping cough. (Weiner)
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Value to Beneficial InsectsSpecial Value to Native Bees
This information was provided by the Pollinator Program at The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.
National Wetland Indicator StatusThis information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1 (Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here for map of regions.
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Sibley Nature Center - Midland, TX
Native Seed Network - Corvallis, OR
BibliographyBibref 1207 - Earth Medicine, Earth Food (1990) Michael A. Weiner
Bibref 610 - Edible wild plants of the prairie : an ethnobotanical guide (1987) Kindscher, K.
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Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Grindelia squarrosa in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Grindelia squarrosa in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Grindelia squarrosa
MetadataRecord Modified: 2008-05-28
Research By: TWC Staff