Essay On Modernization And Pollution

  • 2.

    Yu Runze, ‘Vice Premier Li Keqiang Vows to Combat Air Pollution’, Sina English, 15 January 2013, cited in Elizabeth Economy, ‘Environmental Governance in China: State Control to Crisis Management’, Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences 143, no. 2 (Spring 2014): 187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 4.

    Vaclav Smil, China’s Past, China’s Future: Energy, Food, Environment (New York and London: Routledge Curzon, 2004), 145.Google Scholar

  • 8.

    Jack Goody, The Theft of History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006);Google Scholar

  • Robert B. Marks, The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological History from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-First Century (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007).Google Scholar

  • 9.

    General works which include strong consideration of environmental dimensions in East Asian modernization include: Mark Elvin, The Pattern of the Chinese Past: A Social and Economic Interpretation (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1973);Google Scholar

  • Kenneth Pomeranz, The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000);Google Scholar

  • R. Bin Wong, China Transformed: Historical Change and the Limits of European Experience (Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 1997);Google Scholar

  • A. G. Frank, ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1998);Google Scholar

  • Pomeranz, ‘The Transformation of China’s Environment’, in The Environment and World History, ed. Edmund Burke III and Pomeranz (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009), 118–64.Google Scholar

  • 10.

    Jeffrey Wasserstrom bases his contrast of present-day China with the China of two hundred years ago on Bayly’s work, see Jeffrey Wasserstrom, ‘China & Globalization’, Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences 143, no. 2 (Spring 2014): 157–69; andCrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • C. A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World, 1780–1914: Global Connections and Comparisons (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004).Google Scholar

  • 11.

    For Chinese and Japanese environmental history overviews, see: Mark Elvin, ‘Introduction’, in Sediments of Time: Environment and Society in Chinese History, ed. Mark Elvin and Ts’ui-jung Liu (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 1–30; John R. McNeill, ‘China’s Environmental History in World Perspective’, in Sediments of Time, 31–52;Google Scholar

  • Bao Maohong, ‘Environmental History in China’, Environment and Society 10, no. 4 (2004): 475–99;Google Scholar

  • Conrad Totman, Japan: An Environmental History (London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2014);Google Scholar

  • Ian Jared Miller, Julia Adeney Thomas, and Brett L. Walker eds., Japan at Nature’s Edge: The Environmental Context of a Global Power (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press, 2013).Google Scholar

  • 12.

    John R. McNeill, ‘Environmental History in general and in Asia’, in Environmental History as if Nature Existed, ed. John R. McNeill, Mahesh Rangarajan, and José Augusto Pádua (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2010), 21–2.Google Scholar

  • 13.

    Mark Elvin, The Retreat of the Elephants: An Environmental History of China (New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 2004); The Pattern of the Chinese Past; and ‘Sustainability versus Adaptation: Comments on the Chinese Experience’, Nova Acta Leopoldina 114, no. 390 (2013): 105–28.Google Scholar

  • 14.

    Note, for example: Elvin, The Pattern of the Chinese Past; Ts’ui-jung Liu and Mark Elvin, eds., Chi Chien So Chih: Chung-kuo Huan-ching Shih Lun-wen Chi (Taipei: The Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, 1995); Elvin and Liu, eds., Sediments of Time;Google Scholar

  • Robert B. Marks, Tigers, Rice, Silk, and Silt: Environment and Economy in Late Imperial South China (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 15.

    John R. McNeill, ‘State of the Field of Environmental History’, Annual Review of Environment and Resources 35 (2010): 345–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 16.

    Judith Shapiro, China’s Environmental Challenge (Cambridge and Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2012);Google Scholar

  • Elizabeth C. Economy, The River Runs Black: The Environmental Challenge to China’s Future (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005).Google Scholar

  • 17.

    Micah S. Muscolino, Fishing Wars and Environmental Change in Late Imperial and Modern China (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2009) and The Ecology of War in China: Henan Province, the Yellow River, and Beyond, 1938–1950 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).Google Scholar

  • 18.

    See, for example, Tohru Morioka et al., eds., Establishing a Resource-Circulating Society in Asia: Challenges and Opportunities (Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2011);Google Scholar

  • Barbara Schuler, ed., Environmental and Climate Change in South and Southeast Asia: How are Local Cultures Coping? (Leiden and Boston, MA: Brill, 2014);Google Scholar

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  • Barbara J. Sinkule and Leonard Ortolano, Implementing Environmental Policy in China (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995);Google Scholar

  • S. Beyer, ‘Environmental Law and Policy in the People’s Republic of China’, Chinese Journal of International Law 5 (2006): 185–211;CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • K. A. Day, ed., China’s Environment and the Challenge of Sustainable Development (New York: M. E. Sharpe, 2005);Google Scholar

  • G. Harris, ‘Environmental Perspectives and Behavior in China: Synopsis and Bibliography’, Environment and Behavior 38 (2006): 5–21;CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • R. B. Harris, Wildlife Conservation in China: Preserving the Habitat of China’s Wild West (New York: M. E. Sharpe, 2007).Google Scholar

  • 19.

    Richard Louis Edmonds, Patterns of China’s Lost Harmony: A Survey of the Country’s Environmental Degradation and Protection (London: Routledge, 1994);CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • He Bochuan, China on the Edge: The Crisis of Ecology and Development, trans. Jenny Holdaway, Guo Jian-sheng, Susan Brick, Hu Si-gang, and Charles Wong (San Francisco, CA: China Books and Periodicals, 1991);Google Scholar

  • Vaclav Smil, China’s Environmental Crisis: An Inquiry into the Limits of National Development (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1993); Smil, China’s Past, China’s Future;Google Scholar

  • Chris Coggins, The Tiger and the Pangolin: Nature, Culture, and Conservation in China (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press, 2003); Barbara Schuler, Environmental and Climate Change in South and Southeast Asia; Sinkule and Ortolano, Implementing Environmental Policy in China; S. Beyer, ‘Environmental law and policy’.Google Scholar

  • 20.

    For example, Brett L. Walker, ‘Meiji Modernization, Scientific Agriculture, and the Destruction of Japan’s Hokkaido Wolf’, Environmental History 9, no. 2 (2004): 248–74; and Toxic Archipelago: A History of Industrial Disease in Japan (Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2011); Mark Elvin, Retreat of the Elephants; Shapiro, China’s Environmental Challenge;CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • Robert B. Marks, China: Its Environment and History (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2012).Google Scholar

  • 21.

    Conrad Totman, The Green Archipelago: Forestry in Pre-Industrial Japan (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1989); The Lumber Industry in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press, 1995); Japan’s Imperial Forest Goryōrin, 1889–1945 (Folkestone, England: Global Oriental, 2007); and Japan: An Environmental History (London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2014).Google Scholar

  • 22.

    Conrad Totman, Pre-Industrial Korea and Japan in Environmental Perspective (Leiden: Brill, 2004).Google Scholar

  • 23.

    Brett L. Walker, The Conquest of Ainu Lands: Ecology and Culture in Japanese Expansion, 1590–1800 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2006).Google Scholar

  • 25.

    Ian Jared Miller, Julia Adeney Thomas, and Brett L. Walker, eds., Japan at Nature’s Edge: The Environmental Context of a Global Power (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press, 2013).Google Scholar

  • 27.

    Tian Feng and Li Xu-ming, eds., Environmental History: A Discourse of the History of Interrelationships Between Humans and Nature(Beijing: Commercial Press, 2011).Google Scholar

  • 28.

    Wang Xingguang, China’s Agricultural History and Environmental History(Zhengzhou: Daxiang Publisher, 2012).Google Scholar

  • 29.

    Chang Su-Bing, Three Hundred Years of the Zhuoshui River: History, Society, and the Environment (New Taipei City: Acropolis Publisher, 2014).Google Scholar

  • 30.

    Bao Maohong 包茂紅, The Origins of Environmental History and its Development[環境史學的起源和發展] (Beijing: Beijing University Press, 2012), chapter 8.Google Scholar

  • 31.

    Wang Lihua 王利華, ‘Exploitation and Judgement of Facts in Ecological History’ (生態史的事實發掘和事實判斷), Historical Research [歷史研究] 3 (2013): 19–25;Google Scholar

  • Chao Xiaohong 鈔曉鴻 ‘On Deepening Environmental History Research’ (深化環境史研究芻議), Historical Research 3 (2013): 4–12.Google Scholar

  • 32.

    Hauiyin Li, ‘From Revolution to Modernization: The Paradigmatic Transition in Chinese Historiography in the Reform Era’, History and Theory 49, no. 3 (2010): 336–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 33.

    Wang Lihua 王利華, ‘On establishing a framework of Chinese environmental history’ (淺議中國環境史學建構), Historical Research 1 (2010): 10–14;Google Scholar

  • Zou Yilin 鄒逸麟, ‘Some problems relating to environmental history’ (有關環境史研究的幾個問題), Historical Research 1 (2010): 15–18;Google Scholar

  • Micah S. Muscolino 穆盛博, ‘New trends in Chinese environmental history research’ (中國環境史研究的新趨勢), Jianghan Tribune [江漢論壇] 5 (2014): 41–2.Google Scholar

  • 35.

    Lan Yong 藍勇, ‘Four understandings for China’s regional environmental history’ (對中國區域環境史研究的四點認識), Historical Research 1 (2010): 18–23.Google Scholar

  • 36.

    Jonathan Schlesinger 謝健, ‘New Qing history at the forefront of Chinese environmental history’ (新清史與中國環境史前沿), Jianghan Tribune 5 (2014): 42–6.Google Scholar

  • 38.

    This series, The Environmental History of Japan [環境の日本史], was published in Tokyo by Yoshikawa Kobunkan 吉川弘文館 in 2012–13. Vol. 1: Hirakawa Minami 平川南, ed., Japanese History and Environment: Human and Nature [日本史と環境─人と自然] (2012). The other four volumes are: vol. 2:Google Scholar

  • Miyake Kazuo 三宅和朗, ed., Ancient Livelihood and Prayer [古代の暮らしと祈り] (2013); vol. 3:Google Scholar

  • Ihara Kesao 井原今朝男, ed., Medieval Environmental Development and Subsistence[中世の環境と開発・生業] (2013); vol. 4:Google Scholar

  • Mizumoto Kunihiko水本邦彦, ed., Living People and the Early Modern Natural World [人々の営みと近世の自然] (2013); vol. 5:Google Scholar

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  • 39.

    Qian, Zhongshu, ‘Lin Shu’s Translations’, in Patchwork: Seven Essays on Art and Literature, trans. Duncan M. Campbell (Leiden: Brill, 2014), 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 40.

    Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, rev. ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), 219.Google Scholar

  • 41.

    Robert Weller, Discovering Nature: Globalization and Environmental Culture in China and Taiwan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006). Also seeCrossRefGoogle Scholar

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  • 44.

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  • 45.

    Benjamin A. Elman, A Cultural History of Modern Science in China (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008), 198–9.Google Scholar

  • 46.

    Judith Shapiro, Mao’s War Against Nature: Politics and the Environment in Revolutionary China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

  • 47.

    For details, see Ts’ui-jung Liu 劉翠溶, ‘On Concepts and Institutions Related to the Environment in Chinese History’ [中國歷史上關於山林川澤的觀念和制度], in Economic Growth, Income Distribution and Institutional Evolution [經濟成長、所得分配與制度演化], Monograph Series, no. 46, ed. Tien-Wang Tsaur 曹添旺, Ching-Chong Lai 賴景昌, and Cheng-Chen Yang 楊建成 (Taipei: Sun Yat-Sen Institute for Social Sciences and Philosophy, Academia Sinica, 1999), 1–42.Google Scholar

  • 48.

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  • 52.

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  • 55.

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  • Decaying of culture

    In 1830s lord Macaualy declared that the indian people would only change their culture through modernization and education .So the british established may modern schoolsand colleges.With this the indians forgot their culture and tradition.This left the culture decaying and modernization into lives.Stil in some vilages their are gurukulas of olden times but in most of the places we see schools that do not teach culture and modernization.

  • Loss of culture

    Whenever you modernize a culture most people do not take the time to actually care about the people. This causes the need for a drastic change in their way of life and leads to the entire loss of their culture as the next generation does not listen to the teachings of their parents, but the teachings of the modern world

  • Loss of culture

    Whenever you modernize a culture most people do not take the time to actually care about the people. This causes the need for a drastic change in their way of life and leads to the entire loss of their culture as the next generation does not listen to the teachings of their parents, but the teachings of the modern world

  • Loss of culture

    Whenever you modernize a culture most people do not take the time to actually care about the people. This causes the need for a drastic change in their way of life and leads to the entire loss of their culture as the next generation does not listen to the teachings of their parents, but the teachings of the modern world

  • Loss of culture

    Whenever you modernize a culture most people do not take the time to actually care about the people. This causes the need for a drastic change in their way of life and leads to the entire loss of their culture as the next generation does not listen to the teachings of their parents, but the teachings of the modern world

  • Loss of culture

    Whenever you modernize a culture most people do not take the time to actually care about the people. This causes the need for a drastic change in their way of life and leads to the entire loss of their culture as the next generation does not listen to the teachings of their parents, but the teachings of the modern world

  • There are also some negative outcomes of modernization.

    Has it ever hit you that every day our world is growing more and more advanced? Simply look around you. We are currently living in an environment far different from the Ancient time period, where technology and innovation are becoming the main sources fueling our evolving planet. Majority would agree that modernization has definitely established high-quality convenience. However, with almost everything that we humans have provided, we tend to ignore the negative effects we created upon ourselves such as the outbreak of most chronic illnesses. While the modern society has granted us a better and easier lifestyle, there are also some significant downsides that affect many of us to this day.
    We are all familiar with the modern cigarette. It began in the 1880s by James Duke and has been upgraded and widely used over the years up to this present day. Many smokers feel that smoking is a stress-reliever however, they are not aware of the negative health factors that will affect them later. The modern cigarette now contains 600 ingredients and when they are burned, 69 in the 7,000 chemicals are toxic and cause different types of cancers. According to BBC News, U.S. Surgeon Alton Ochsner shared his experience during medical school in the year 1919. His class had to observe an autopsy of a patient who had lung cancer, a disease so rare back then. Now in the year 2000, there are different types of chronic diseases where cigarette smoking is responsible for 85% of such cases. In fact, cigarette smoking is the deadliest lifestyle factor that leads to more deaths than any other. This man-made product also affects our environment by polluting the air, destroying forests for the growth of more tobacco, and killing marine animals. So, what has this modern invention done to our lives? Roger Proctor from Stanford University proclaims that the cigarette is the deadliest creation of human civilization and has killed over 100 million people like the famous actor, Patrick Swayze and George Harrison from the Beatles.

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